Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 – Thiamine

Ms. Marcela Licata –
Brief Definition
Also known as thiamin, this vitamin is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates for energy generation, plays an essential role in nervous system function, and contribute to the growth and maintenance of the skin.

This water-soluble vitamin can be found in meats especially liver, egg yolk, whole grains, dairy, legumes, vegetables, yeast and some nuts.

Its deficiency, detectable through blood tests and urine generates psychic irritability, loss of appetite, persistent fatigue, depression, constipation, numbness in legs by decreasing blood pressure and body temperature. A cause that can generate its deficiency is the excessive intake of alcohol.

The average daily requirement of vitamin B1 are 0.6 mg in children, 1.1 in women, 1.2 in men and in women during pregnancy and lactation.

One of the big problems is that the thiamine content is reduced and altering the long-term storage, washing, boiling and microwave cooking. Dehydration except minimally affects fruit and vegetable content is generally not severely affected by the freeze.
Extended Definition
Functions of Vitamin B1
Greatest contribution Foods – Top Sources
Deficiency – Effects of the lack
Toxicity – Hypervitaminosis
Extended Definition
Thiamine belongs to vitamin B complex and was discovered in 1912. In 1926, for the first time, was identified in its pure form in a laboratory by chemist Casimir Funk, and being the first water-soluble vitamin B group discovered was named B1.

It was discovered when it came to finding a cure to a disease called ‘beriberi’, discovered by Dutchman Christiaan Eijkman late nineteenth century during his years of research on the island of Java.

In those areas, power is based on the consumption of refined grains, and because they lack vitamin B its inhabitants padeci√°on this ailment.

As a result of this disease, and in the twentieth century, was forced to supplementation of vitamin B in these cereals. At present, all refined grains are the addition of this vitamin, and although the disease is considered eradicated, can only appear in some developing countries.

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Thiamine is involved in various processes of our metabolism:

in the transformation of food into energy, since the enzymes involved in this metabolic process need of Vitamin B.
glucose uptake by the nervous system is a process where thiamine intervenes, and as a result of their disability, can have symptoms such as lack of coordination and tingling in extremities. This degradation caused by nerve fibers. When appointing the nervous system includes the brain, as this vitamin is essential for it to absorb glucose properly. If that does not happen, depressive problems may arise, tiredness, low mental ability, etc..
the health of one of the senses such as sight, also depends on the thiamine, to function optimally, and thus be free from diseases such as glaucoma (where they have detected very low levels of this vitamin).
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The main sources of vitamin B1 are found in:

Food of animal origin
meat (mostly pork and beef liver)
Plant food: the best sources of thiamine in this realm are:
grains and all its derivatives
Vitamin B1 also found in peas, oranges, potatoes, cabbage, asparagus Whenever cereals have been through the refining process, should be supplemented with vitamin B1, since in this process is where thiamine is lost.
The following table mentions the number of milligrams (mg) of vitamin B1 in a portion of food

Thiamine food amount (mg)
Pork 0.96 85 gr
1 cup oats 1.19
Oat bran, cooked 1 cup 0.35
Oat bran, raw 1 cup 1.10
0.10 gr pinions 30
Pistachios 1/2 cup 0.23
Cornflakes cereal (ready to eat) 1.3 1.50 cup
Peas, frozen, cooked 1 cup 0.45
Salmon, cooked 155 gr 0.3
White rice, common, cooked 1 cup 0.25
1 cup orange juice 0.22
orange 1 0.11
Potato, baked 1 (150g) 0.16
Asparagus, frozen, cooked 1 cup 0.11
1 cup whole milk 0.10
Chicken breast, cooked 150 g 0.16
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Vitamin B1 or Thiamin
In most people who have a balanced diet and balanced vitamin deficiency does not usually occur, but there are situations or circumstances where vitamin B1 should be taken as a supplement in tablet form, considering that its absorption is optimal provided it is accompanied by other B vitamins Therefore, only under medical supervision and according to circumstances, are supplemented with vitamin B the following cases:

Heart failure and related diseases (fluid retention in the body), as activity improves coronary thiamine, this vitamin supplement, vitamin counteracts loss producing other drugs such as diuretics.
Dementia: improved brain function in this type of disease.
Depression: people with depression have thiamine deficiency, therefore vitamin supplementation reduces the negative effects of depression stabilizing and balancing the person emotionally. Under stress can also be beneficial to supplement with Vitamin B1
Alcoholism: alcohol addiction destroys vitamin B1. With alcoholism is hampered and reduced absorption of many nutrients including thiamin, vitamin supplementation therefore beneficial to the treatment of alcoholics.
Heartburn: thiamine reduces levels of gastric acid secreted by the stomach.
When you have chronic diseases or during a post-operative administration of thiamine provides positive results.
During special moments in the lives of women, such as pregnancy or lactation, thiamine supplementation is often necessary.
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Recommended daily dose of vitamin B1
The required dose of thiamine or vitamin B1 for an adult is 1.1 mg / day, but these needs may be altered or varied as in the above cases.

The following table sets recommended daily intake of vitamin B1 or Thiamine according to the Department of Nutrition of the IOM (Institute of Medicine: Institute of Medicine) and USDA (United States Department of Agriculture: USDA U.S.) for both infants children and adults.

Men age
(Mg / day)
(Mg / day)
Pregnancy and Lactation
(Mg / day)
6 months 0.2 0.2
7 to 12 months 0.3 0.3
1-3 years 0.5 0.5
4-8 years 0.6 0.6
9-13 years 0.9 0.9
14-18 years 1.2 1.0
19-70 years 1.2 1.1 1.4
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The toxicity of vitamin B is rare, as it is a water soluble vitamin, ie it is soluble in water, and its excess is eliminated through urine.
The doses of thiamine injections administered in amounts 100 times greater than recommended can cause headaches, convulsions, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and allergic reactions.

Tolerable upper intake level of vitamin B1 reports have not been established on the adverse effects of excessive intake of vitamin B1 or thiamine. Anyway caution should be exercised in consuming more than the recommended intakes above.

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Factors inhibiting its absorption are tannins, substances in tea as tea, coffee or drinks like wine, is therefore not recommended incorporation during or after meals, when the aim is to increase levels this vitamin in the body.
Vitamin C helps improve the absorption of vitamin B1 or thiamine as well as the rest of the complex of B vitamins
Vitamin B1 or thiamine is highly unstable, so it loses before cooking, depending on the temperature and acidity of the medium (pH).
to freeze for an extended period (eg 12 months) of food containing vitamin B1 can result in significant loss of the same (between 20 and 60%)
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